We use the term information technology or IT to refer to an entire industry. In actual observance, the information technology is the use of computer and software to manage information. In some companies, this is referred to as Management Information Services (MIS) or simply as Information Services (or IS).
The information technology department of a large company would be responsible for storing information, protecting information, processing the information and transmitting the information as necessary and later retrieving information as necessary.
Generation of computers is divided into 5 major types.
- First Generation (1940-1956) In this generation, data transmission is by using vacuum tubes.
- Second Generation (1956-1963) In this generation, transistors are used instead of vacuum tubes.
- Third Generation (1963-1971) In this generation, integrated circuits (ICs) replaced the usage the transistors.
- Fourth Generation (1971-present) In this generation, microprocessors are used instead of integrated circuits.
- Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) In this generation, Artificial Intelligence (AI) are used in the place of microprocessors.
Concepts of a normal computers include software, hardware and programs.
- Software is the set of programs
- Hardware is all the physically existing components of a computer which we touch and feel like that of CPU, keyboard and mouse etc.
- Programs are nothing but the set of instructions given to a computer to perform any task in the computer.
Major parts of a computer include Input devices, Processing unit, Output devices, RAM and MotherBoard.
- Input Devices are used to give the input to the computer. Common input devices are keyboard and mouse, scanner, joystick, light pen and microphone.
- Output Devices are used to present the output after the processing of input is done by the computer. Examples include monitors, printers, LCD projectors etc.
- RAM also called Random Access Memory is a temporary memory. In this data is lost whenever we shutdown the computer.
- Motherboard is the central printed circuit board housing the principal components of a computer and having slots to attach other circuit boards specific in their operation to enhance the features and overall performance of the PC. The main components included on a typical motherboard are PCI slots, North and South Bridge, Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) slots, Random Access Memory (RAM) slots, Peripheral Component Interface (PCI) slots, BIOS, Processor Socket, C-MOS Battery.